Taxation of Beverage Alcohol
Pricing policies, notably through taxation, are among the various regulations applied to alcohol beverages in almost every country where their sale is legal. Taxation may be imposed by national, state, or local authorities, and can include value-added tax (VAT), sales tax, excise tax, and tariffs. This review mainly discusses excise taxation on alcohol beverages.
Drinking and Cardiovascular Health
The relationship between alcohol and CVD is complicated and depends on the pattern of drinking. While heavy consumption is a risk factor for CVD, light to moderate drinking has been identified as protective against several diseases among some groups of individuals.
National Drinking Guidelines
Health promotion efforts by governments aim to encourage lifestyles and choices that support the health and wellbeing of citizens.
Unrecorded alcohol includes a variety of legal and illegal products and is particularly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries.
Drinking and Metabolic Disorders
The relationship between alcohol intake and risk for metabolic disorders, notably Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MetS), is characterized by a U-shaped or a J-shaped curve, similar to what is observed for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.
Drinking and Liver Disease
Heavy drinking is often associated with alcohol-related liver disease, which includes alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis.
Drinking and Obesity
A number of factors have been implicated in the development of obesity, one of which is the consumption of alcohol. The relationship between alcohol consumption and obesity is complex, however, and involves a number of additional factors.
Drinking and Cancer
Alcohol consumption is one of a number of factors that contribute to the risk for developing certain types of cancer, including cancers of the upper digestive tract, as well as liver, breast, colorectal, and kidney cancer.
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Health Warning Labels
Health warning labels (HWLs) are used to offer directional information about drinking and to remind consumers about potential risks of harmful drinking patterns. In some countries, the inclusion of HWLs is mandated by governments. In others, where such requirements are lacking, they may be applied voluntarily by producers.
Social marketing techniques have been applied to a range of environmental, social, and health issues, including drinking behavior.