This table details drinking guidelines issued by government bodies in various countries regarding alcohol consumption by women who may become pregnant, are pregnant, or are breastfeeding. Recommendations for other healthy adults are detailed separately in the table Drinking guidelines: General population. Standard drinks are shown in grams of ethanol.
It is updated on an ongoing basis as government entities publish and revise their guidelines.
If you have information about a country not currently listed, or if you find any of the information outdated, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
International Alliance for Responsible Drinking (IARD). (2019). Drinking guidelines for pregnancy and breastfeeding. Retrieved from http://www.iard.org/resources/drinking-guidelines-for-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding/
|Country/Territory||Authority||Standard drink g||Guidelines pre-pregnancy||Guidelines pregnancy||Guidelines breastfeeding|
|Albania||Department of Public Health Recommendations on Healthy Nutrition in Albania (2008)||10||-||Pregnant women should avoid taking alcohol.||Avoid alcohol during breastfeeding.|
|Andorra||Government of Andorra, |
National strategy for nutrition, sport and health: Practical advice 4. Diet and physical activity during pregnancy, breastfeeding and infancy
|[none]||-||Avoid consumption of alcoholic beverages from the first day of pregnancy, since it is not known exactly what dose entails risk for the neurological development of the fetus.||Do not drink alcohol while breastfeeding.|
|Argentina||Ministry of Health, |
Dietary guidelines for the population of Argentina (2015)
|14||-||Always avoid alcoholic beverages.||-|
|Armenia||Ministry of Health, Order 191 of 16 February 2010 Adult dietary guidelines||[none]||Do not use alcohol if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding.||Do not use alcohol if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding.||Do not use alcohol if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding.|
|Australia||National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol (2009) Note: The NHMRC is revising these guidelines in 2016-2019. |
Australian Dietary Guidelines 2013
|10||Not drinking is the safest option.||Not drinking is the safest option.||Not drinking is the safest option. Women should avoid drinking in the first month after delivery until breastfeeding is well established. After that: alcohol intake should be limited to no more than two standard drinks a day; women should avoid drinking immediately before breastfeeding; women who wish to drink alcohol should consider expressing milk in advance. Maternal alcohol consumption can harm the developing fetus or breastfeeding baby.|
|Austria||Federal Ministry of Health and Women, Factsheet: Dialogue week on alcohol (2017) |
Federal Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Health and Consumer Protection, Austrian food pyramid for pregnant and breastfeeding women
|[none]||-||Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause prenatal damage. To protect the unborn child, every woman should completely abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.|
Attention! No alcohol.
|Alcohol and breastfeeding: Alcohol should be avoided during breast-feeding. Breastfeeding mothers should not be impaired when breastfeeding and both parents should in principle treat alcohol responsibly in the sense of their role model effect and in the interests of their children. This affects both mothers and fathers in all phases of their children's lives.
Attention! No alcohol.
|Belgium||Belgian Federal Public Service Health, |
Strongly recommended for future moms and parents of children age 0 to 3 (2006)
|10||-||During your pregnancy, do not follow any specific diets, avoid tobacco and alcohol ...||Do not exclude anything from your diet but alcohol.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Institute for Public Health, Guide on nutrition for the adult population (2004)||10||-||Pregnant women should refrain from drinking alcohol !||-|
|Botswana||Ministry of Health, "Making Pregnancy Safer"||[none]||-||When you realize you are pregnant, avoid alcohol.||-|
|Bulgaria||Ministry of Health, Recommendations for healthy eating before and during pregnancy and while breastfeeding (2008)||8||It is recommended that women who are trying to become pregnant not consume alcohol. If you consume alcoholic beverages, quantities should be limited: no more than one or two units of alcohol once or twice a week. One unit is equivalent to a small glass of wine or one glass of beer or 25 ml of spirits.||Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal harm therefore pregnant women are advised not to consume alcoholic beverages. If they do consume alcohol, to ensure minimal risk to the baby, pregnant women may consume no more than one glass of wine or beer or 25ml of spirits once a week.||While breastfeeding it is recommended not to consume alcoholic beverages or to severely limit their consumption.|
|Canada||Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Low-risk Drinking Guidelines (2011) |
Public Health Agency of Canada, The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy
|13.6||Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all.||Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all. |
The Sensible Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy: There is no safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy.
|Low-risk Drinking Guidelines: The safest choice is to drink no alcohol at all.|
|Chile||Chile Crece Contigo, integrated infant protection web portal established by Law 20.379 as part of the Multi-sector Social Protection System||14||-||Recommendations for good nutrition during pregnancy include not drinking alcohol because it is associated with malformation in the initial stages of pregnancy and at later ones with deviations in fetal growth and development.||-|
|China||National Health and Family Planning Commission, Chinese Dietary Guidelines (2016)||[none]||For couples planning to begin a pregnancy, both the man and woman should stop drinking alcohol 3 to 6 months prior.||Pregnant women should not drink alcohol.||Drinking alcohol while breastfeeding can be harmful to the child's health, therefore continue to avoid it.|
|Chinese Taipei||Department of Health, "Eat Smart" dietary guidelines: While pregnant or breastfeeding|
Maternal health handbook 2013
|[none]||-||Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should avoid alcohol.||Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should avoid alcohol.|
|Colombia||Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women (infographic 2018)||[none]||-||Do not consume alcohol beverages during pregnancy.||Do not consume alcohol beverages while breastfeeding.|
|Cyprus||Ministry of Health, Breastfeeding: Off to the best start for your baby (2014)||[none]||-||-||Alcohol should be avoided.|
|Denmark||National Board of Health, Healthy habits before, during and after pregnancy 2015||12||As it is often difficult to know the exact time of conception, you should not drink alcohol if you are planning on having a baby.||No exact limit is known for how little a pregnant woman can drink without harming her unborn baby. The recommendation is therefore for pregnant women not to drink any alcohol at all.||For each unit of alcohol consumed, it takes 2-3 hours before the milk is free from alcohol again. ... Drink a minimum of alcohol when breastfeeding.|
|Ecuador||Ministry of Social Development and Ministry of Public Health, Step by step for a full childhood (2015)|
Care for the health, physical activity, and nutrition of women who are pregnant and mothers who are breastfeeding (2014)
|[none]||-||-||Do not drink alcohol.|
|El Salvador||Ministry of Health, Health promotion materials: maternity component||[none]||-||Do not consume alcohol beverages.||-|
|Estonia||Health Development Institute, Alkoinfo.ee (2018) |
Estonian Nutrition Society, Recommendations during pregnancy (2016)
|10||Alkoinfo.ee: You should not drink alcohol at all if you are pregnant, breast-feeding a child, or planning to become pregnant. Women who consume alcohol over the low-risk limits may take longer to get pregnant, and may experience problems with menstruation and fertility. If a woman has difficulty becoming pregnant, one thing which could help is abstaining from alcohol. |
Nutrition recommendations: Alcohol consumption in large quantities affects a woman's fertility. Large amounts of alcohol during the initial period (more than 80 g of pure alcohol a day) can significantly affect fetal development. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and those planning pregnancy completely give up alcohol use.
|Alkoinfo.ee: When a woman consumes alcohol during pregnancy, the risk of birth defects increases. This is particularly true in the first 8 to 12 weeks of gestation. Thus, it is the safest to avoid alcohol altogether during pregnancy. |
Nutrition recommendations: Large amounts of alcohol during the initial period (more than 80 g of pure alcohol a day) can significantly affect fetal development. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and those planning pregnancy completely give up alcohol use.
|Alkoinfo.ee: The amount of alcohol in breastmilk is similar to what it is the mother's bloodstream. For half an hour to an hour after drinking the amount is the largest. If you drink while eating, then 60-90 minutes. One unit of alcohol from is eliminated from the body in one to two hours. ... Alcohol in the breastmilk will result in the anxiety and sleep disorders for the child, as well as delay in motor skill development. In addition, alcohol can affect the production of breast milk. During breastfeeding, you should definitely avoid alcohol.|
|Fiji||Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Alcohol: Healthy you (2015) |
National Food and Nutrition Center, Food and Health Guidelines for Fiji (2013)
|10||Alcohol Healthy you: You should not drink any alcohol when pregnant or planning to become pregnant.||Alcohol Healthy you: Drinking alcohol when pregnant poses many harmful risks to your unborn baby. It is not safe for pregnant women to drink any alcohol. |
Food and Health Guidelines: Excessive alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy slows the growth of the baby: it can also lead to premature births, deaths and miscarriages.
|Finland||National Institute for Health and Welfare, Factsheet: Alcohol health risks for healthy adults (2016)||12||Heavy alcohol use reduces both women's and men's fertility. Excessive alcohol use should be avoided if planning to become pregnant.||The amount of alcohol exposure that poses risk for the fetus is not known, so it is safest to give up the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.||Heavy episodic drinking during breastfeeding may be harmful to the child's development and from a mother-child relationship point of view.|
|France||Alcool-info-service (December 2018) based on Public Health France and National Cancer Institute, Expert opinion (May 2017) commissioned by the Interministerial Mission for Combating Drugs and Addictive Behaviors (MILDECA) and the Ministry of Health Directorate General of Health (DGS) |
National Program Nutrition and Health 2017-2021, Pregnancy: Foods to avoid and Breastfeeding Guide 2015
|10||-||Alcool-info-service: In the following situations, it is safest not to drink alcohol at all: For the duration of pregnancy and while breastfeeding. ... Current scientific evidence does not allow us to determine a level of alcohol consumption or a quantity of alcohol that would be without risk for the unborn child. By virtue of the precautionary principle, it is recommended that pregnant women abstain from any alcohol consumption for the entire duration of their pregnancy. |
National Program Nutrition and Health: The effects of alcohol are due to its capacity to pass into our blood. In the pregnant woman’s body, alcohol also passes into the baby’s blood. Alcohol is toxic to your child and constitutes a risk to neurological development, regardless of the amount of alcohol you drink. Avoid all alcohol beverages (spirits, wines, beers,…) and also foods containing alcohol.
|Alcool-info-service: In the following situations, it is safest not to drink alcohol at all: For the duration of pregnancy and while breastfeeding.
National Program Nutrition and Health: Although having an occasional drink does not seem to pose a particular risk, it is still advisable to avoid alcohol beverages while breastfeeding.
|Germany||Federal Center for Health Education, Know your limit, Nutrition recommendations during pregnancy |
Center for Addiction Issues, Factsheet: Alcohol and Health Risks (2015)
|[none]||-||It makes little difference whether you drink alcohol during the first weeks of pregnancy or toward the end. Alcohol consumption poses a major threat to the child's development in all stages of pregnancy. Therefore refrain entirely from alcoholic beverages throughout pregnancy and while breastfeeding your baby's sake. |
The best protection for the unborn child is total abstinence from alcohol throughout pregnancy. However, at the very beginning of pregnancy many women still do not know that they are pregnant. If pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the initial days ... they should not fear the worst. In advanced pregnancy: abstinence by the mother is the only reliable method to protect the unborn child from the possibility of serious damage, such as a severe fetal alcohol syndrome.
|If you are breastfeeding: drinking alcohol not only increases your blood alcohol level, but also the alcohol content in breast milk. Avoid alcohol during lactation and abstain as long as you breastfeed your child. Only with non-alcoholic milk can your baby can find a restful sleep-wake cycle.
|Iceland||Directorate of Health Nutrition, Alcohol, drugs and pregnancy (2005)||[none]||-||As soon as it is clear that a child is coming, the expectant mother should cease consuming alcohol. If this is difficult, it is important to seek advice from the doctor or midwife who care for her. They can provide support and advice. Even if a woman consumed alcohol during the first weeks of pregnancy before she realizes that she is pregnant, it is always beneficial to stop consumption.||It is desirable to limit alcohol consumption while the baby is breastfeeding.|
|India||National Drug Dependence Treatment Center, Alcohol web India: Useful tips for lower-risk drinking (2016) |
National Institute of Nutrition, Dietary guidelines for Indians 2011
|Alcohol web India: Remember not to drink when pregnant of trying to become pregnant.||Alcohol web India: Remember not to drink when pregnant of trying to become pregnant. |
Dietary guidelines: Do not take alcohol.
|Dietary guidelines: Avoid alcohol.|
|Ireland||Health Promotion Unit, Little book of Alcohol and Women (2003)||10||Cutting down or stopping alcohol while trying to become pregnant protects your baby.||Stopping drinking during pregnancy is the safest advice. There are risks to your baby if you continue to drink, even in small quantities: The more you drink, the greater the amount passed on to your baby. |
More than 3 drinks a day increases the risk of miscarriage.
More than 12 drinks a week increases the risk of premature birth.
Avoid binge drinking, as sudden high levels of alcohol damage the developing brain. Children exposed to alcohol in pregnancy often show poor attention and hyperactivity, that may only become evident when they are a few years old.
|Israel||Ministry of Health, Proper nutrition During Pregnancy||[none]||Alcohol consumption should be avoided prior to becoming pregnant and throughout the entire pregnancy.||Alcohol consumption should be avoided prior to becoming pregnant and throughout the entire pregnancy.||Alcohol is conveyed directly to the fetus during pregnancy via the placenta, and during nursing it is conveyed via breast milk.|
|Italy||National Center for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion,|
Alcohol: Do you know your drinks? The more you know, the lower the risk (2016)
Alcohol during pregnancy: Are you sure? (2015)
|12||There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding. |
If you are planning to have a child or if you are pregnant the best choice for the mother and the unborn child is not to consume alcoholic beverages of any kind.
|There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding. |
If you are planning to have a child or if you are pregnant the best choice for the mother and the unborn child is not to consume alcoholic beverages of any kind.
|There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If planning pregnancy, pregnant or breastfeeding.
|Japan||Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Drinking guidelines (2018)||10||-||Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it may inhibit the development of the fetus and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol also enters breastfeeding breast milk and inhibits infant development.||Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it may inhibit the development of the fetus and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol also enters breastfeeding breast milk and inhibits infant development.|
|Kenya||Ministry of Health, National guidelines for healthy diets and physical activity 2017||[none]||-||Do not take alcohol.||-|
|Korea, Republic of||Korea Health Promotion Foundation, Low-risk Drinking Guidelines 2013||8||You should not drink alcohol at all.||You should not drink alcohol at all.||You should not drink alcohol at all.|
|Lithuania||Health and Prevention Training Center, Kaunas Medical University, |
Healthy Eating Guidelines (2010) Endorsed by Ministry of Health
|10||-||Women consuming alcohol during pregnancy can give birth to newborns with congenital malformations.||-|
|Luxembourg||Ministry of Health, 0% Alcohol: Information for your pregnancy (2013)||10||Give up alcohol when planning to become pregnant, or as soon as you find out that you are.||Give up alcohol when planning to become pregnant, or as soon as you find out that you are.||While breastfeeding, the safest choice is also to give up alcohol.|
|Macedonia||Ministry of Health, Nutrition Guidelines for the Population of Macedonia (2014)||14||Women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant should avoid alcohol altogether.||Women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant should avoid alcohol altogether. There is no safe level of alcohol which is allowed to be consumed during pregnancy.||-|
|Malaysia||Ministry of Health, Dietary Guidelines 2010, Key messages 11 & 12||[none]||Avoid alcoholic beverages.||Avoid alcoholic beverages.||When breastfeeding, mothers should be encouraged not to use alcohol and given opportunities and support to abstain|
|Malta||Parliamentary Secretariat for Health, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Directorate, Dietary guidelines for Maltese adults (2016)|
Agency against Drug and Alcohol Abuse (Agenzija Sedqa), It's not the drinking.. It's how we’re drinking
|8||Agenzija Sedqa: There are situations where a person should not drink alcohol since even the smallest amount can be harmful: Pregnant women, women who believe they may be pregnant or women who may be trying to become pregnant.||Dietary guidelines: Avoid alcohol completely if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. |
Agenzija Sedqa: There are situations where a person should not drink alcohol since even the smallest amount can be harmful: Pregnant women, women who believe they may be pregnant or women who may be trying to become pregnant.
|Dietary guidelines: Avoid alcohol completely if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.|
|Mauritius||Ministry of Health, Dietary guidelines for the prevention of NCDs||300 mL beer, 75 mL wine, or 25 mL spirit||-||Avoid alcohol.||Avoid alcohol.|
|Nigeria||Federal Ministry of Heath, National Nutritional Guideline on|
Non-Communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Management 2014
|[none]||-||Avoid alcohol.||Avoid alcohol.|
|Netherlands||Health Council of the Netherlands, Scientific report on revisions to Guidelines for Healthy Eating 2015 |
Nutrition Center, Guidelines for Healthy Eating 2011
|10||It is recommended not to drink.|
|It is recommended not to drink.|
|It is recommended not to drink.
|New Zealand||Ministry of Health, Alcohol: Pregnancy and babies 2018||10||Stop drinking alcohol if you could be pregnant, are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. There is no known safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.||Stop drinking alcohol if you could be pregnant, are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. There is no known safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.||Stop drinking alcohol if you could be pregnant, are pregnant or are trying to get pregnant. There is no known safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
If you choose to drink alcohol while breastfeeding, it is suggested that you wait at least 2 hours before breastfeeding your baby for each standard drink. For example, if you have 2 standard drinks you should wait 4 hours before you breastfeed.
|Norway||Directorate of Health, Norwegian Guidelines on Diet, Nutrition and Physical Activity (2014) |
Directorate of e-health, Pregnancy and alcohol page (2017)
You should always avoid alcohol while pregnant or trying to get pregnant. The chances of getting pregnant increase if you do not drink alcohol, because alcohol reduces fertility.
|Pregnant women are advised to avoid alcohol. |
If you are concerned because you drank alcohol in early pregnancy, you should talk to your midwife or doctor. ... you are not alone in this situation. The less you drank, the lower the risk of fetal development is affected. Think ahead and stay completely away from alcohol for the remainder of the pregnancy. Every day without alcohol will give the child a better start in life.
|Breastfeeding women are advised to avoid alcohol.
Newborns are immature, with minimal ability to break down even small amounts of alcohol. Therefore, you should abstain completely from alcohol until at least six weeks after birth. If drinking later on while breastfeeding, you should stick to small amounts.
|Paraguay||National Nutrition and Food Institute, Dietary guidelines of Paraguay: Family group||[none]||-||If a woman is pregnant, she should not consume alcohol, because it could affect the health of her baby.||-|
|Poland||State Agency for Prevention of Alcohol Related Problems, National Programme for Preventing and Resolving Alcohol-Related Problems 2011-2015 ||10||-||Pregnant, breastfeeding and hormonally imbalanced women are advised to avoid alcohol altogether.||Pregnant, breastfeeding and hormonally imbalanced women are advised to avoid alcohol altogether.|
|Portugal||Ministry of Health, New Daily Food Choice Food Wheel (2008)||[none]||-||Pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised to abstain.||Pregnant and breastfeeding women are advised to abstain.|
|Serbia||Institute for Mental Health, Responsible Drinking Guidelines (2014)||12.8-13.4||-||Pregnant women should avoid alcohol altogether.||-|
|Sierra Leone||Food-based dietary guidelines for healthy eating 2016||-||... those who are contemplating becoming pregnant, should avoid alcohol.||Pregnant women should not drink any alcohol, including beer and wine, including commercial and homemade brews and spirits throughout their pregnancy...||[You] should not drink any alcohol, including beer and wine, including commercial and homemade brews and spirits ... while breastfeeding.|
|Singapore||Health Promotion Board, |
Pregnancy and Diet (2015)
Don't Toast to Your Baby's Health (2015)
|8 to 10||When pregnant, or trying to become pregnant, ideally you should: Cut right back on drinking if you drink alcohol.||When pregnant, or trying to become pregnant, ideally you should: Cut right back on drinking if you drink alcohol. |
If you have one or two drinks of alcohol (one or two units), once or twice a week, it is unlikely to harm your unborn baby. However, the amount of alcohol that is safe in pregnancy is not definitely known. Heavy or frequent drinking can seriously harm the baby's development.
|...whatever you drink or eat passes to your child through breastmilk. Excessive alcohol use during nursing can also disrupt the flow of your breastmilk, so it’s best not to consume alcohol while breastfeeding.|
|Slovenia||Institute of Public Health of Slovenia, Alcohol consumption and its dangers in pregnancy||10||Do not consume alcohol||Do not consume alcohol||Do not consume alcohol|
|South Africa||Department of Health, MomConnect mobile pregnancy care advice program (2014)||[none]||-||The mobile pregnancy and infancy support service MomConnect includes messages on alcohol consumption during pregnancy such as |
“Congrats on your pregnancy! Your baby is just the size of a small seed but you can help your baby grow. Eat vegetables and fruit, don't smoke or drink alcohol”
“Smoking, illegal drugs and alcohol are all dangerous for you and your baby. Now is a good time to give up if you can. Ask for help at the clinic”
|Spain||Ministry of Health, Social Services, and Equality, Healthy Lifestyles (2016) |
Alcohol during Pregnancy
|10||Alcohol and pregnancy pamphlet: It is best to stop drinking alcohol several weeks before conceiving, because pregnancy can only be confirmed after several weeks. ... That is, before discontinuing contraceptive methods. |
Healthy Lifestyles (2016): If you are pregnant or in the process of becoming so, avoid drinking alcohol.
|Alcohol during Pregnancy: Can I drink alcohol during pregnancy? No. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk that the baby will have birth defects. |
"Healthy Lifestyles (2016): If you are pregnant or in the process of becoming so, avoid drinking alcohol.
|Healthy Lifestyles (2016): The recommendation is that during breastfeeding, alcohol beverages should not be consumed, and if they are, breastfeeding should not occur until the alcohol has been eliminated by the body.|
|Sri Lanka||Ministry of Health, Food based dietary guidelines for Sri Lankans 2011||[none]||-||For an optimal pregnancy outcome, avoid alcohol.||-|
|Suriname||Psychiatric Health Center, E-health.sr||[none]||Do not drink during pregnancy or if planning to become pregnant.||Do not drink during pregnancy or if planning to become pregnant.||-|
|Sweden||National Food Administration, Nutrition and eating habits (2016)||[none]||-||Alcohol passes into your baby through the placenta. The fetus is more sensitive to alcohol than you are, so refrain from alcohol as soon as you think you are pregnant.||Alcohol has no positive effects on breastfeeding. According to current research, however, it involves no medical risks for the child if you consume moderate amounts of alcohol when you are breastfeeding, that is to say 1-2 glasses of wine or its equivalent 1-2 times a week. The amount of alcohol that the child can ingest with the milk is very small.|
|Switzerland||Federal Alcohol Commission (EKAL), Guidance on alcohol consumption (2018)||10||women who are planning to become pregnant are advised to abstain from alcohol||Pregnant women are advised to abstain from alcohol.||Messaging 2015: It is also recommended to abstain while breastfeeding. Alcohol enters the infant's body through breastmilk. If a women drinks at all while breastfeeding, she should do so in moderation. In order for alcohol to be eliminated from the body before the feeding occasion, allow two hours for a standard drink and four hours for two standard drinks.|
|Turkey||Ministry of Health, Turkey dietary guidelines (2016)||-||-||... pregnant women, lactating women, ... should never consume alcohol.||... pregnant women, lactating women, ... should never consume alcohol.|
|United Kingdom||Department of Health, UK Chief Medical Officers’ Low Risk Drinking Guidelines 2016 |
Department of Health, Start4Life web portal
Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Alcohol and Pregnancy: Information for You (2018)
|8||Department of Health: The Chief Medical Officers’ guideline is that: If you think you could become pregnant, the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all, to keep risks to your baby to a minimum. |
Alcohol and Pregnancy: If you are planning a pregnancy, it is advisable not to drink alcohol during this time. Either partner drinking heavily while trying to become pregnant, can make it more difficult to conceive.
|The Chief Medical Officers’ guideline is that: If you are pregnant, the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all, to keep risks to your baby to a minimum. Drinking in pregnancy can lead to long-term harm to the baby, with the more you drink the greater the risk. The risk of harm to the baby is likely to be low if you have drunk only small amounts of alcohol before you knew you were pregnant or during pregnancy. If you find out you are pregnant after you have drunk alcohol during early pregnancy, you should avoid further drinking. You should be aware that it is unlikely in most cases that your baby has been affected. If you are worried about alcohol use during pregnancy do talk to your doctor or midwife. |
Alcohol and Pregnancy: Avoiding alcohol during pregnancy is the safest option. There is no proven safe amount of alcohol a woman can drink during pregnancy.
If you drink alcohol during pregnancy, some alcohol will pass through the placenta to your baby. The more you drink the greater is the risk of harm to your baby. It is important that you tell your healthcare professional(s) about your drinking so that appropriate support and information can be offered to you.
|Alcohol and Pregnancy: The safest option is to avoid alcohol during breastfeeding as alcohol can find its way into your breast milk.
Regular drinking during breastfeeding may affect your baby’s development.
If you do choose to drink, it is safest not to drink more than 14 units per week and best to spread your
drinks evenly during the week.
|United States||Department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 |
Surgeon General's Advisory on Alcohol Use in Pregnancy (2005)
|14||Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020:Women who are or who may be pregnant should not drink. |
Surgeon General's Advisory 2005: A woman who is considering becoming pregnant should abstain from alcohol. Recognizing that nearly half of all births in the United States are unplanned, women of childbearing age should consult their physician and take steps to reduce the possibility of prenatal alcohol exposure.
|Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020:Women who are or who may be pregnant should not drink. Drinking during pregnancy, especially in the first few months of pregnancy, may result in negative behavioral or neurological consequences in the offspring. No safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been established. |
Surgeon General's Advisory 2005: A pregnant woman should not drink alcohol during pregnancy. A pregnant woman who has already consumed alcohol during her pregnancy should stop in order to minimize further risk.
|Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020: Women who are breastfeeding should consult with their health care provider regarding alcohol consumption.|
|Uruguay||Ministry of Health, Food guide for the Uruguayan population (2016)||10||-||... pregnant women should not drink alcohol.||-|
|Venezuela||National Nutrition Institute, Healthy living recommendations ||[none]||-||Pregnant and breastfeeding women should eliminate the consumption of alcoholic beverages.||Pregnant and breastfeeding women should eliminate the consumption of alcoholic beverages.|
|Vietnam||National Institute of Nutrition, Maternal nutrition (2010)||10||-||During pregnancy and breastfeeding, …do not use alcohol.||During pregnancy and breastfeeding, …do not use alcohol.|