Taxation of Beverage Alcohol
Pricing policies, notably through taxation, are among the various regulations applied to alcohol beverages in almost every country where their sale is legal. Taxation may be imposed by national, state, or local authorities, and can include value-added tax (VAT), sales tax, excise tax, and tariffs. This review mainly discusses excise taxation on alcohol beverages.
Drinking and Cardiovascular Health
The relationship between alcohol and CVD is complicated and depends on the pattern of drinking. While heavy consumption is a risk factor for CVD, light to moderate drinking has been identified as protective against several diseases among some groups of individuals.
National Drinking Guidelines
Health promotion efforts by governments aim to encourage lifestyles and choices that support the health and wellbeing of citizens.