This table details recommendations for alcohol consumption (drinking guidelines) issued by government bodies in all countries for which IARD has been able to verify the information with the respective national authorities or through publicly accessible documents. Generally, these recommendations apply to healthy adults. It is specified when other groups are the targets of the recommendations. Standard drinks are shown in grams of ethanol, or as described in the source document. Guidelines for women who may become pregnant, are pregnant, or are breastfeeding are detailed separately in the table Drinking Guidelines: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding.
For more details, see What goes in the IARD Policy Tables?.
This table is updated on an ongoing basis as government entities publish and revise their guidelines. IARD last conducted a review of records across all countries in March-July 2022. At that time IARD expanded this table to include non-quantified recommendations, which were previously not covered.
International Alliance for Responsible Drinking (IARD). (2022). Drinking guidelines: General population. Retrieved from https://iard.org/science-resources/detail/Drinking-Guidelines-General-Population
If you find any of the information outdated, please email us at RegDB@iard.org.
The resources on this website are not intended as health advice to individuals about their drinking. People with specific questions about their drinking are encouraged to consult a healthcare professional. Together, they can determine what is best for that individual, based on individual risk factors, including family history, genetics, and lifestyle. For some people, the better choice may be to not drink at all.
IARD Policy Tables are provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter. All IARD materials include a date of content review and they should be read in their entirety and not misrepresented or taken out of context.
|Country/Territory||Source||Men||Women||Standard drink g||Other recommendations|
|Afghanistan||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Albania||Department of Public Health, Recommendations on Healthy Nutrition in Albania (2008)||up to 20 g/day||up to 20 g/day||10||Adults: If you do consume alcohol, you should not take more than 2 beverages (each containing 10 g alcohol) per day. ... If you take alcoholic beverages, do not take too much and try to take with your meals.
- Women in menopause: It's important to stay away from the alcoholic beverages, coffee and spicy food because those influence in worsening the warmth.
- Elderly: Do not take too much alcoholic beverages.
|Andorra||National strategy for nutrition, sport and health: Practical advice booklets (2009-2014)||1 serving||1 serving||[none found]||Adults: Food intake table: Wine or beer: one serving. Optional, moderate consumption only by adults. These have elements with beneficial properties.
Elderly: Food intake table: Optional, moderate consumption. If there are no contraindications, 1-2 small glasses of wine a day. Consumption of beverages with high alcohol concentration should be avoided.
Children and adolescents: Consumption of alcohol beverages is absolutely prohibited at your age.
|Angola||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Antigua and Barbuda||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Argentina||Ministry of Health,
Dietary Guidelines for the Argentinian Population (2015) The guidelines are due for revision beginning in 2022.
Alcohol - Responsible consumption (2022)
Recommendations to stop drinking alcohol (2022)
|2 drinks/day||1 drink/day||14
300-350 mL beer, 150 mL wine, or 45 mL spirit
|Consumption of alcohol beverages should be responsible. Children, adolescents and pregnant women should not consume them. Always avoid them when driving.
1. Responsible consumption in adults is at most, daily, two measures for men and one measure for women.
2. Consumption that is not responsible generates serious harms and risks to health.
|Armenia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Australia||National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australian guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol 2020||up to 100 g/week;
up to 40g on any one day
|up to 100 g/week;
up to 40g on any one day
|10||Healthy men and women: To reduce the risk of harm from alcohol-related disease or injury for healthy men and women, drink no more than 10 standard drinks per week and no more than 4 standard drinks on any one day. The less you choose to drink, the lower your risk of alcohol-related harm. For some people not drinking at all is the safest option.
Children and young people: To reduce the risk of injury and other harms to health, children and young people under 18 years of age should not drink alcohol.
|Austria||Federal Ministry of Health and Women, Dialogue week on alcohol: How much is too much? (2019)||up to 24 g/day||up to 16 g/day||[none found]||Low-risk drinking also includes abstaining in certain situations, such as during pregnancy, work, and driving, and when taking certain medications.
Problematic consumption (significantly increased health risk and risks for third parties, such as increased accident risk or involvement in situations of violence): from 60 g/day in men and from 40 g/day in women.
|Azerbaijan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Bahamas||Ministry of Health, New Dietary Guidelines for the Bahamas (2002)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||It is advisable not to drink alcohol, but if you drink, do so in moderation.|
|Bahrain||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Bangladesh||Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dietary Guidelines for Bangladesh (2013)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Avoid alcohol consumption.|
|Barbados||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Belarus||President's Office Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology, info-materials
Materials on healthy diet do not discuss alcohol beverages, other potentially relevant documents that are listed are not accessible (result in error message)
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Belgium||Belgian Federal Public Service Health, Take care of yourself: Alcohol (2016)||21 drinks per week||14 drinks per week||[none found]||See also Superior Council of Health (SCH), Advisory Report 9438 Risks of alcohol consumption (May 2018)|
|Benin||Dietary guide for Benin (2015)||1 drink/day||1 drink/day||14||General guidance for the prevention of chronic diseases related to nutrition: If you consume alcohol, do not consume more than a measure per day.|
|Bhutan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Bolivia||Ministry of Health, Technical bases of the food guide for the Bolivian population (2014)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Avoid the excessive consumption of ... alcohol beverages.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Institute for Public Health, Guide on nutrition for the adult population (2004)||up to 20 g/day||up to 10 g/day||10||Drinking immoderate amounts of alcohol has harmful effects on health.
Men should drink no more than two drinks or 20 g of pure alcohol a day, while women can drink only one drink, and 10 g of pure alcohol. Pregnant women should refrain from drinking alcohol!
|Botswana||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population 2nd edition (2014) does not include recommendations on alcohol beverages.
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Brunei Darussalam||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Bulgaria||Ministry of Health,
Cancer risk factor prevention (2022)
Harms from using cigarettes and nargile and from abusing alcohol (2020)
Healthy eating recommendations for the population aged 18 and above (2018)
|2020: up to 220 g/week
2018: 1 beer, 1 glass of wine, 50 mL spirits
|2020: up to 110 g/week
2018: 1 beer, 1 glass of wine, 50 mL spirits
|Ministry of Health, Cancer risk factor prevention 2022:
Alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer of the mouth, throat and vocal cords, breast, intestines and liver. The risk of cancer of the upper digestive tract increases in accordance with the amount of alcohol consumption over 25 g/day (about 250 ml of wine or 500 ml of beer). One hundred grams of alcohol per day (approximately 1 liter of wine or 2 liters of beer) increases the risk of cancer 4 to 6 times compared to people who do not consume alcohol or consume moderate alcohol. Restricting alcohol consumption is an effective measure to prevent cancer.
Ministry of Health, Harms from ... abusing alcohol 2020:
Alcohol consumption may vary from complete abstinence or low-volume consumption to excessive consumption, and the problems related to alcohol in the range of none to considerable and serious.
Risky alcohol consumption is defined as a level or mode of consumption that would lead to harm if the consumption habits are not changed. According to the amount of alcohol consumed in a week, it can be classified as:
Moderately risky: up to 280 mL for men and 140 mL for women
Risky: 280-350 mL for men and 140-210 mL for women
Highly risky: above 350 mL for men and above 210 mL for women
Ministry of Health, Healthy eating recommendations... 2018: The recommendation is to not consume alcohol, but if you do - do so only in moderate quantities: 1 beer, 1 glass of wine, 50 mL spirits. Consume alcohol beverages slowly, along with food, and give preference to non-alcohol beverages.
|Burkina Faso||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Burundi||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Cabo Verde||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Cambodia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Cameroon||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Canada||Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines (2018)
The CCSA is conducting a review of the guidelines in 2020-2022.
|15 drinks a week, with no more than 3 drinks a day
No more than 4 drinks on any single occasion
|10 drinks a week, with no more than 2 drinks a day
No more than 3 drinks on any single occasion
|13.5||These recommendations equate to up to 207 g/week or 41.4 g/day for men and 138 g/week or 27.6 g/day for women.
A standard drink is 341 ml 5% alcohol beer, cider or cooler; 142 ml 12% alcohol wine; 43 ml 40% distilled alcohol.
Teens should speak with their parents about drinking. If they choose to drink, they should do so under parental guidance; never more than 1–2 drinks at a time, and never more than 1–2 times per week. They should plan ahead, follow local alcohol laws and consider the Safer drinking tips listed.
|Central African Republic||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Chile||National Service for Prevention and Rehabilitation of Drug and Alcohol Use (SENDA) Alcohol||1 drink per day||1 drink per day||[none found]||Low-risk drinking: This type of consumption is considered "safest" or "lower-risk" in terms of negative consequences and harm. If you choose to drink, it is recommended to drink no more than one standard drink per day (recommendation for both men and women)
Intensive drinking (binge drinking): is a way of drinking that increases the chances of suffering alcohol-related problems, or that complicates managing other health problems, without being a disorder (dependence or problem drinking). Consuming a quantity over a short period of time: more than five drinks on the same day for men and more than four drinks on the same day for women.
For children, pregnant women or drivers, the quantity does not matter, any quantity is risky and they should not drink alcohol.
|China||Ministry of Health and Chinese Nutrition Society, Chinese Dietary Guidelines (2016)||25 g/day||15 g/day||[none found]||Children and adolescents, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and those who drive or operate machinery, are allergic to alcohol or suffer from certain diseases, are recommended not to drink alcohol at all.|
|Chinese Taipei||Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare,
Eat smart: Healthy eating habits (2021, based on 2018 Dietary Index Handbook)
|20 g/day||10 g/day||10||Long-term excessive drinking can easily cause nutritional imbalance, damage the liver, and even cause cancer.|
|Colombia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
Consumption is prohibited for Muslims.
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Congo, Democratic Republic||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Congo, Republic of||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Costa Rica||Institute on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, What happens when one drinks alcohol (2022)||32 g/day
16 g on any occasion
16 g on any occasion
|8||How much alcohol is too much? Our recommendation is to choose not to drink, but if as an informed adult you choose to drink, limiting your consumption to 3 or 4 drinks per day [21-32g/day], and having at least three days each week without alcohol, is least harmful. ... Consider limiting your drinking to no more than 2 drinks [16g] per occasion. Reduce your consumption or stop it completely for a while. ...
How much can I drink without harm, if I choose to drink? No level of alcohol is safe, it is best not to consume alcohol. The health risks associated with alcohol consumption are very large. There are clear and convincing correlations between drinking and premature death, cancer, and cardiovascular problems.
Are there situations in which one should not drink ANY alcohol? Yes. For example: when driving or operating machinery; if you are pregnant or breastfeeding; if you are taking medications; if you have certain medical conditions; if you cannot control your drinking.
|Cote d'Ivoire||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Croatia||Croatian National Institute of Public Health,
Poster: Do you like to drink? (2018)
Drinking alcohol beverages (2015)
|[none found]||[none found]||10||(2018) Avoid beverages that contain alcohol. If you drink do so in moderation.
(2015) A standard drink contains 10 g of ethanol.
|Cuba||Ministry of Health, Noncommunicable diseases in Cuba - How to reduce risk of suffering them? (2019)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||How to reduce risk of noncommunicable diseases? ... Avoid harmful use of alcohol.|
|Cyprus||Ministry of Health, National nutrition and exercise guidelines (2007)||2 drinks/day||1 drink/day||[none found]||If you drink alcohol, do not exceed one drink for women and two for men per day. Prefer red wine, as it is rich in antioxidants.|
|Czech Republic||National Institute of Public Health, Overview of national guidelines for moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages: low-risk doses of ethanol (December 2015)||up to 24 g/day;
not to exceed 40 g on any one occasion
|up to 16 g/day;
not to exceed 40 g on any one occasion
|10||Two days without alcohol per week are recommended.
Keep in mind that in some situations even a single drink might be risky (for example when driving).
|Denmark||National Board of Health, Note on the Danish Health and Medicines Authority's announcements about alcohol consumption (2022)
The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations are being updated in 2019-2022.
|up to 120 g/week;
not to exceed 40 g/day
|up to 120 g/week;
not to exceed 40 g/day
|12||No alcohol consumption is risk-free for your health.
Young people aged 18-25 must pay special attention not to exceed the recommendations.
Children and young people under the age of 18 are advised not to drink alcohol.
|Djibouti||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Dominica||Ministry of Health and Social Security, Food based dietary guidelines for Dominica (2007)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||If you use alcohol do so in moderation.|
|Dominican Republic||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Ecuador||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Egypt||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|El Salvador||El Salvador's food guides are under revision in 2022.||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Eritrea||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Estonia||Health Development Institute,
up to 20 g/day;
up to 140 g/week
up to 40 g/day
up to 10 g/day;
up to 70 g/week
up to 20 g/day
|10||Alkoinfo.ee (2022): The low-risk limit is individual - human bodies react very differently to alcohol and this changes throughout the life cycle. Age, gender, genes, as well as other factors play a role in how exactly alcohol affects someone's health. Alcohol increases the risk of developing cancer, the higher the amount drunk, the higher the risk. When assessing the individual limit, take into account other risks, such as overweight, smoking, medication, illness, etc. If you have mood disorders, anxiety or depression, drinking alcohol will not help but make the problem worse. Even smaller amounts of alcohol can lead to alcohol abuse or dependence with regular consumption.
There's a number of situations in which alcohol should not be drunk because it is dangerous to oneself and others, such as driving a car or using equipment, swimming, or operating in water. Alcohol should also not be consumed by pregnant or breastfeeding women and by those taking certain medicines, or people who are addicted to alcohol.
Toitumine.ee Recommendations for a healthy diet (2022): The human body does not need alcohol for metabolism. If alcohol is consumed, men should not drink more than four units of alcohol and women more than two units of alcohol per day. One unit is the quantity containing 10 grams of absolute alcohol. There must also be at least three completely non-alcoholic days in each week for these quantities. It should also be borne in mind that, in addition to other possible harmful effects, alcohol provides a large amount of additional energy. For example, one unit of alcohol is about 4 cl of 40% spirits or 12 cl of 12% wine; 0.5 l of beer (5.2%) is two units of alcohol.
|Eswatini||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Ethiopia||Ministry of Health, Ethiopia Public Health Institute, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines Booklet 2022||2 glasses per week||2 glasses per week||225g beer, 300g tej, 220g wine, 230g tela||Key message 11: Limit alcoholic drinks – both factory-processed and homemade – to no more than 2 glasses per week.|
|Equatorial Guinea||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Fiji||Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Alcohol: Healthy you (2015)
National Food and Nutrition Center, Food and Health Guidelines for Fiji (2013)
|30 g/day or 150 g/week or 50 g on any single occasion
60 g/day or 210 g/week, with no more than 20g in the first hour and 10 g/hour after that
|20 g/day or 100 g/week or 40 g on any single occasion
40 g/day or 140 g/week, with no more than 10 g/hour
|10||At least two days without alcohol per week are recommended. You should not drink any alcohol when: pregnant or planning to become pregnant; on medication that interacts with alcohol; when you have a condition made worse by alcohol; you feel unwell, depressed, tired or cold; you are about to operate machinery or a vehicle or do anything that is risky or requires skill.
|Finland||National Institute for Health and Welfare,
Factsheet: Alcohol health risks for healthy adults (2016)
Talking about alcohol (2021)
Over 65 years, evaluate alcohol (2018)
The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations are being updated in 2019-2022.
|20 g/day||10 g/day||12||(2016): The levels in the columns to the left are associated with "no likely risk".
Moderate risk: Men: Prolonged consumption of more than more than 168 g/week, Women: Prolonged consumption of more than 84 g/week.
High risk: Men: above 40 g/day or 276-278 g/week, Women: above 20 g/day 144-192 g/week.
Avoid binge drinking (5-6 drinks at once, Finnish Nutrition Recommendations)
For young people any level of alcohol consumption increases the risk of harm. The initiation of alcohol use should be postponed as long as possible.
The risks associated with alcohol use among the elderly occur at lower consumption levels than among other adults.
For adults 65 years and older:
(2021): It is best not to exceed 96 g/week
(2018): It is best not to exceed 84 g/week; It is not recommended to drink more than 2 servings (24g) at once; It is important to practice caution when taking medications and drinking alcohol, be mindful of the possible harmful effects
|France||Alcool-info-service (2022), based on Public Health France and National Cancer Institute, Expert opinion (May 2017) commissioned by the Interministerial Mission for Combating Drugs and Addictive Behaviors (MILDECA) and the Ministry of Health Directorate General of Health (DGS).||up to 20 g/day or 100 g/week||up to 20 g/day or 100 g/week||10||All alcohol consumption entails risks and the risks increase with the quantity consumed. Alcohol consumption can influence the development of many diseases like: some cancers including of the mouth, throat, colon and rectum, liver, and breast; some cardiovascular diseases; and liver cirrhosis.
But it is possible to reduce these risks by following a simple rule: no more than 2 drinks per day (20g/day), and not every day. That means that each week it is recommended, for men and women (except pregnant women): have several days without alcohol, not drink more than 2 standard drinks (20g) on the days that you do drink, overall, not drink more than 10 standard drinks (100g/week)
For each drinking occasion, it is recommended: to reduce the quantity consumed on each occasion; to drink slowly, while eating and alternating with water; to avoid risky places and activities; to be with people you trust and able to return home safely.
In general, it is safest not to drink alcohol in these situations: While pregnant or breastfeeding; While a child or adolescent; When driving vehicles; When using tools and machinery; When playing risky sports; When taking certain medications; When you have certain diseases
|Gabon||National Nutrition Center, National Dietary Guidelines and Recommendations for Healthy Diets - Gabon (2021)
[Full text review pending]
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Key message 2: Drink water according to your thirst instead of alcoholic beverages, especially pregnant and breastfeeding women.|
|Gambia, The||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Georgia||Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs,
Healthy eating – the main key to health 2005
National Center for Disease Control and Public Health,
General facts you should know about alcohol consumption and health (2020)
Healthy lifestyle (undated)
Infographics (2019) Daily limit, Risks A, Risks B, Benefits of cutting down
|20 g/day||10 g/day||10||General facts you should know about alcohol consumption and health (2020): ... A lot of evidence shows that there is no "safe limit" and that each drink increases the risk of health damage. ...
Alcohol infographics (2019): Drinking more than 28 g/day is considered excessive consumption
Healthy lifestyle (undated): Reduce the amount of alcohol consumed: Excessive consumption of alcohol beverages (≥20 g/day) is related to 1 in 4 accidents, increases the risk of obesity by 46%, increases the risk of developing diabetes and cancer of different organs - oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, breast, liver, stomach!
Healthy eating – the main key to health (2005): Men: 20g/day, Women: 10g/day
|Germany||Federal Center for Health Education, Know Your Limit||up to 24 g/day||up to 12 g/day||[none found]||At least two days of abstinence from alcohol a week are recommended.|
|Ghana||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Greece||Ministry of Health and Institute of Preventive, Environmental and Occupational Medicine (Prolepsis),
Nutrition recommendations (2022)
|2 drinks/day||1 drink/day||330mL beer of 4-5%ABV, 125mL wine of 11-13%ABV, or 40-45mL spirits of 40%ABV||Moderate consumption is defined as the consumption of 2 drinks/day for men and 1 drink/day for women. This does not mean that if you do not consume alcohol for one or more days, you can transfer the number of drinks allowed per day and consume them in total.
Prefer to drink wine or other alcohol beverages during meals. In this way alcohol is absorbed at a slower rate, thus reducing the negative effects on health.
Avoid consuming large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time (heavy episodic drinking or binge drinking). Binge drinking is defined as the consumption within two hours of 4 or more drinks for women and 5 or more drinks for men, for the purpose of intoxication.
If you think you may be experiencing alcohol dependence, consult a health professional immediately. If you think that a relative or friend of yours is having this problem, encourage them to consult a specialist.
|Grenada||Grenada Food and Nutrition Council, Healthy choices for healthy living (2020) and Facilitator handbook (2020)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Avoid alcohol.|
|Guatemala||Ministry of Health and Social Support, Dietary guidelines (2012)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||... 10. Avoid drinking alcohol because it harms health.
Alcohol results in irreversible harms to the liver, nervous system, and brain. It impedes absorption of essential nutrients, such as vitamins. It produces behavioral changes that can put one and one's family in danger. It causes family disintegration and is one of the primary causes of domestic violence. The fat content in blood can increase with excess drinking, and cardiovascular disease become more likely.
During pregnancy, it crosses the placenta and also passed into breast milk. In both cases the baby suffers serious consequences.
The primary causes of death among adolescents and youth are accidents and violence; in many cases due to excessive alcohol consumption.
Alcoholism is a disease that requires specialized treatment, the person suffering from it deserves help, not discrimination. Recovery is possible through mutual support groups.
|Guinea||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Guinea-Bissau||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Guyana||Ministry of Health, Food-based dietary guidelines for Guyana (2004)
Revised food-based dietary guidelines were published in 2018 - archiving pending.
|up to 8 g/day||up to 8 g/day||8||It is advisable not to drink alcohol, but for those who do, not more than one drink per day is recommended.|
|Haiti||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Honduras||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Hungary||Public Health Programme for a Healthy Nation, Dietary guidelines to the adult population in Hungary (2004)||2 drinks per day||1 drink per day||[none found]||1 unit of alcohol: 2-3 dl beer, or 1-1.5 dl wine, or 2 cl of spirits.
It is wise to drink alcohol beverages at the time of meals, because alcohol will be then absorbed more slowly.
|Iceland||Directorate of Health
Alcohol and drug prevention (2021)
The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations are being updated in 2019-2023.
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||There are no known criteria for harmless use of alcohol.
You can't drink alcohol for your health.
Stop drinking before you reach 5 drinks on the same occasion.
Older people are advised to avoid alcohol.
Alcohol can affect the way medicine works.
Children and underage young people should not drink alcohol at all.
Pregnant women should completely abstain from drinking alcohol. Women who are trying to conceive are also advised to abstain from alcohol altogether - for safety.
|India||National Health Portal (under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare),
Healthy diet (2016)
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Healthy diet (2016):
General adult population: Avoid alcohol and those who choose to drink, should limit its use. Excessive alcohol intake weakens the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and also damages the liver (cirrhosis), brain and peripheral nerves. It also increases serum triglycerides. ... Drinks that contain alcohol also will add calories, so it’s a good idea to limit your alcohol intake.
Adolescence is the most vulnerable stage for ...drinking alcohol. [It] should be avoided.
Individuals of 60 years and above: Avoid... consumption of alcohol.
|Indonesia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Iran||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Iraq||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Ireland||Health Service Executive,
Weekly low-risk drinking guidelines (2019)
Guide to healthy eating (undated)
|up to 170 g/week;
50/60 g on one occasion
|up to 110 g/week;
50/60 g on one occasion
|10||Drinks should be spread out over the week.
Have 2 to 3 alcohol-free days per week. Drink no more than 6 standard drinks on any one occasion. (5 standard drinks on one occasion in Guide to healthy eating)
The less you drink the lower the risk of developing alcohol-related health issues.
Sticking to the limit is not safe if you drink your weekly allowance in one session, or over a couple of nights.
Drinking like this is the most harmful way of drinking for your health. You’re also more likely to lose control, have accidents and take risks.
When it’s not safe to drink at all: if you’re pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant; if you are on certain medications or have a condition made worse by drinking; before you operate machinery; before or while driving; before doing anything risky or that requires skill; before or during swimming
|Israel||Ministry of Health,
Nutrition in older age (65+)
Pages on the recommended dietary pattern (Mediterranean diet) and Nutrition during pregnancy do not discuss alcohol consumption (July 2022).
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Nutrition in old age (65+): It is also important to limit drinking alcoholic drinks (you can drink a moderate amount of red wine).|
|Italy||National Center for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, Alcohol: Do you know your drinks? The more you know, the lower the risk (2016)
Ministry of Health, Alcohol: Zero, or as little as possible (2022)
|up to 24 g/day if aged 21-65
up to 12 g/day if aged 18-21 or above 65
|up to 12 g/day||12||The law prohibits the sale and supply of alcoholic beverages to those under the age of 18. There are situations where complete abstention from alcohol consumption is recommended: If taking medication, suffering from an acute or chronic disease, are addicted to alcohol or other substances, fasting or between meals, while on the job, or if you must drive a vehicle or operate machinery, if planning to become pregnant, pregnant, or breastfeeding.
Binge drinking is defined as consuming 72 g or more within 2-3 hours.
|Jamaica||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Japan||Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare,
Drinking guidelines (2021)
Alcohol units (2021)
|20 g/day; 10 g/day if aged 65 or above||10 g/day||20||12 drinking rules to protect health based on the guidelines of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare and existing evidence:
-For Japanese people with normal alcohol metabolism, the average daily amount of pure alcohol is about 20g [for] moderate drinking. Drink an average of 2 drinks (=20g) or less per day; It is recommended that women and the elderly over the age of 65 drink less alcohol than middle-aged men. For example, let's use [10g] or less per day as a guide.
-Considering the risk of cancer, it is recommended that those who have a flushing reaction after drinking alcohol should refrain from drinking alcohol.
-Do not drink heavily even if you only drink occasionally. Even if you drink a lot at least at one time, you may hurt yourself, increase the risk of accidents, or increase your dependence.
-Drinking quickly on an empty stomach or in one go with a meal can cause a rapid increase in blood levels of alcohol, leading to hangovers and, in some cases, acute alcohol intoxication. Also, to protect your body, dilute strong alcohol when you drink it.
-Avoid nightcaps (drinking to help you sleep) as much as possible - they your sleep lighter. To get a healthy and deep sleep, you shouldn't rely on alcohol.
-Abstain for 2 days a week. Doing so will also prevent addiction.
-No alcohol during drug treatment. Alcohol enhances or weakens the effect of medicinal drug. It is also known to accelerate mutual dependence when taken with tranquilizers.
-No alcohol before bathing, exercising, or working because it may cause arrhythmia and fluctuations in blood pressure. Alcohol also reduces motor function and judgment.
-Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as it may inhibit the development of the fetus and cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol also enters breast milk and inhibits infant development.
-Lifelong abstinence for addicts: Addiction is characterized by the inability to control alcohol consumption, and continued abstinence is the only way to recover.
-Take regular checkups and regular liver function tests to check if you are drinking too much. Also, if you are a habitual drinker with a reddish constitution, have a cancer screening for the esophagus and large intestine.
|Jordan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Kazakhstan||Ministry of Health and National Centre for Problems of Healthy Lifestyle Development, Alcohol: Assess the situation and make a choice! (2016)||70-80 g/week||70-80 g/week||12;
330 mL beer, 120 mL wine, 40 mL spirit
|There are no safe limits for alcohol consumption, since even small doses can lead to serious deviations in health condition. If you drink at least six doses per week, reflect on the situation and reduce your intake or cease consumption.|
|Kenya||Ministry of Health and Nutrition Association of Kenya, National guidelines for healthy diets and physical activity 2017||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||The guidelines do not give guidance for adults up to age 60 about alcohol beverages. Those above 60 years old are recommended to limit alcohol beverages, among other changes in diet, because they need less energy. Pregnant women are advised not to consume alcohol beverages.|
|Kiribati||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Korea, Democratic People's Republic||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Korea, Republic of||Korea Health Promotion Foundation,
Low-risk Drinking Guidelines (2013)
National Dietary Guidelines (2017)
Drinking and health webpage (2018)
|40 g/day||20 g/day||8||Low-risk drinking guidelines (2013): Minors below 19 should not drink alcohol at all.
People who suffer from serious physical and mental illness should not drink alcohol. Do not drink alcohol when you exercise. Do not drink alcohol if driving or operating machinery. You should not drink if your face turns red from a little alcohol (facial flushing).
National Dietary Guidelines (2017): Avoid alcoholic beverages. Moderate amount recommended by the World Health Organization: Men 40g / Women 20g a day.
Binge drinking may develop cirrhosis and cancer of the liver, and damage mind and body of youths
Drinking during pregnancy intensifies the risk of having a baby with birth problem
Raise the risk of an accident while driving or working
Changing the drinking culture reduces stress through obbies and leisure; reforms the culture of company dinners and business entertainment; promotes family time after work
Drinking and Health (2018): Even a small amount of alcohol can cause cancer, but nevertheless, the relatively low-risk alcohol intake (low-risk alcohol consumption) is 40 g or less for adult men and 20 g or less for women. The low-risk drinking amount is 5 drinks for an adult male and 2.5 drinks for an adult female based on soju. If you are blushing (hot flushes), you should not drink alcohol.
|Kuwait||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Kyrgyzstan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Lao, People's Democratic Republic||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Latvia||Ministry of Health, Healthy eating tips for various populations||[none found]||[none found]||12||Adults (2020): Do not drink alcohol beverages, as their consumption is harmful to your health. ... it is still better to avoid daily alcohol consumption.
Adults above 65 years old (2022): Limit alcohol consumption!
During pregnancy (2017): Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy as it is seriously detrimental to the baby's development and health. ... It is safest not to drink alcohol at all during pregnancy or when planning a pregnancy. ...
|Lebanon||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Lesotho||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Liberia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Libya||[n/a] Sale and consumption are prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Liechtenstein||Users of the Addiction Prevention Liechtenstein website are referred to:
German Main Office for Addiction Issues (DHS), Everything OK with alcohol? (2019)
|24 g/day||12 g/day||[none found]||Alcohol consumption is always risky. Therefore, you should drink as little as possible or no alcohol. The risk of disease is demonstrably increased for healthy adults: for women if they drink more than 12 g/day; for men if they drink more than 24 g/day.
At least two to three days a week should be totally free from alcohol.
There is an additional risk when consuming larger amounts of alcohol per drinking occasion (“binge drinking”): for men, 50 g or more during a drinking episode, i.e. around 1.25L of beer or around 0.6L of wine and more; for women 40 g or more, i.e. about 1L of beer or 0.5L of wine and more.. According to recent scientific findings, such consumption leads to a health risk, regardless of the average total amount of alcohol consumed. The risk increases with higher amounts of alcohol consumed.
In the case of people with special illnesses or risk groups such as pregnant women, consumption of very small amounts can also lead to negative consequences.
Current low-risk drinking guidelines differ for men and women because alcohol is broken down differently in the body. Examples of daily consumption limits that should not be exceeded on average:
(a small drink is 100mL wine or 300mL beer, a drink is 40mL spirit)
For women no more than 1 small drink/day or 6 drinks/week; a maximum of 3 small drinks in one day or evening.
For men, no more than 2 small drink/day or 12 drinks/week; a maximum of 4 small drinks in one day or evening.
At least 2 days of the week should be alcohol-free days!
It is better to spread out alcohol throughout the week than to drink several drinks at once.
The following applies in the case of special illnesses and for pregnant women as well as when driving a car and operating machines: no alcohol beverages!
|Lithuania||Ministry of Health, Health Training and Disease Prevention Center (SMPLC)
Healthy and sustainable nutrition recommendations (2020)
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Avoid consumption of alcohol.
Alcohol weakens the immune system and is associated with an increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and has a negative effect on mental health.
|Luxembourg||National Center for Addition Prevention, Alcohol (2020)||20-24 g/day||10-12 g/day||10-12||Tips for responsible use of alcohol:
For healthy adults, low risk consumption is deemed to be: for men, a maximum of two standard glasses of alcohol per day; for women, a maximum of one standard glass of alcohol per day (10-12g/day); refrain from alcohol for at least two days a week
Do not drink too quickly and too much (no drinking games, take breaks, e.g. with non-alcoholic beverages)
Do not use alcohol to quench your thirst
Do not drink alcohol when performance, concentration and quick reactions are required: driving, workplace/school, sport
Refrain from alcohol during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Clarify what risks alcohol consumption poses given existing ailments
When celebrating together (party etc.) keep an eye out for one another and make sure you get home safely.
Periodically go without alcohol, e.g. live alcohol free, for four weeks and see to what extent one has become habituated to alcohol and how important it is (the change drinking habits, where appropriate).
|Madagascar||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Malaysia||Ministry of Health, Malaysian Dietary Guidelines 2010||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Avoid alcohol beverages.|
|Malawi||Ministry of Health, National Nutrition Guidelines for Malawi (2007)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Essential actions to improve nutrition for these groups mention alcohol consumption: Among the elderly - They should be encouraged to reduce smoking and alcohol consumption; People living with HIV and AIDS - Avoid alcohol and tobacco as they suppress the immune system
Essential actions for prevention and control of the following diseases mention alcohol consumption: Obesity - Avoid excess consumption of alcohol; Diabetes - Alcohol should be taken in moderation; Gout - Reduce alcohol intake
|Maldives||[n/a] Consumption by citizens is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Malta||Parliamentary Secretariat for Health, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Directorate,
How much is too much? (2017)
Dietary guidelines for Maltese adults: Booklet for consumers (2016)
|up to 112 g/week spread over at least five days; not more than 16 g/day regularly; not more than 32 g on any one occasion||up to 112 g/week spread over at least five days; not more than 16 g/day regularly; not more than 32 g on any one occasion||8||The ideal situation is to not drink alcohol at all. Although low-risk drinking refers to limiting drinking to amounts and patterns that are unlikely to cause harm, there is no definite safe level for drinking alcohol. Harm to one’s health arising from regular drinking can develop over many years. To keep health risks low, one should not drink more than 14 standard drinks (112) per week spread over five days. Even on special occasions one should never drink more than 4 standard drinks (32g) in any one day. No alcohol at all should be drunk on at least two days each week. This is valid both for men and women alike.
Do not drink at all: When driving or operating machinery; When pregnant or breastfeeding; When taking certain medications; If one has certain medical conditions; If one cannot control his/her drinking.
In order to reduce health risks from drinking, you should: Keep track and limit the number of drinks on any single occasion; Drink more slowly; Drink with food; Alternate alcohol drinks with water; Never drink and drive; Plan ahead to avoid problems, such as making sure you can get home safely or have trusted friends with you.
Some people choose not to drink alcohol. Others drink to socialize, celebrate or even relax. However some drink alcohol in harmful ways, such as when: Drinking more than two standard drinks/units (16g) in one day on a regular basis; Binge drinking (drinking a large amount of alcohol in a short space of time); Getting drunk; Drinking to the extent of causing physical or mental harm; Drinking patterns that result in alcohol dependence.
|Marshall Islands||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Mauritania||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Mauritius||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Mexico||National Commission against Addictions (CONADIC),
Alcohol beverage consumption on the National Day of Healthy Distancing for COVID-19 (2020)
Preventing consumption of alcohol during the workweek (2019)
Ministry of Health, Dietary and physical activity guidelines 2015
See also NOM-047-SSA2-2015 Health care for the age cohort 10 to 19 years old. Appendix D for guidance to primary care providers on parameters for determining low-risk consumption in healthy adults.
|CONADIC (2020): less than 4 drinks per occasion, not more than three times per week
CONADIC (2019): no more than 12 drinks/week or 4 drinks in a single day. ... Do not drink more than one drink per hour.
DPAG (2015): up to 26 g/day
|CONADIC (2019): no more than 9 drinks/week or 3 standard drinks in a single day. ... Do not drink more than one drink per hour.
CONADIC (2020): less than 3 drinks per occasion, not more than three times per week
DPAG (2015): up to 13 g/day
|10-13||CONADIC (2020): It is also important that you keep in mind that there are groups of people with greater vulnerability, in whom it is recommended with greater emphasis that they DO NOT consume alcohol, namely: Minors; Pregnant women; People who have under their responsibility the care of other people with special care, such as children, older adults, or people with a disease; People suffering from a chronic disease, such as diabetes, cardiovascular or liver diseases, cancer; People undergoing medical treatment for anxiety, depression, sleep problems, etc; People who drive motor vehicles; People who operate machinery or specialized equipment that may compromise the safety of third parties; People recovered from alcoholism.
CONADIC (2019): Under 18 years of age, any consumption is risky. Do not drink if you are pregnant or suspect you may be. Alcohol consumption can seriously affect the mother and the developing baby. Do not drink if you taking medication. Do not drink if you are going to drive. If you are working, avoid drinking or any type of drugs.
DPAG (2015): When alcohol beverages are consumed in excess (more than 1 drink per day for women and 2 for men), they have effects harmful for health …
A drink is for example: 356 mL of beer, 100 mL of wine, or 30 mL of spirit
|Micronesia, Federated States of||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Moldova, Republic of||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Mongolia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Montenegro||Institute of Public Health of Montenegro,
Tips on food and nutrition during self-isolation (2020)
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Alcohol is harmful at any level and is not a necessary part of a healthy diet, it is recommended to avoid alcohol consumption.|
Consumption is prohibited for Muslims.
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Mozambique||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Myanmar||Ministry of Health, Avoid drinking alcohol to be healthy and happy (2018) brochure [unofficial translation]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||It is best not to start drinking alcohol, because it can lead to addiction
If you drink alcohol, do not operate machinery or drive vehicles
|Namibia||Ministry of Health and Social Services, Nutrition Guidelines for Prevention and Management of NCDs (2013)||not more than 20 g/day||not more than 10 g/day||10||Recommended practices for preventing overweight and obesity: Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol - Men: not more than 20g/day; Women: not more than 10g/day
Avoid alcohol to prevent or manage: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, high cholesterol, cancer, gout, peptic ulcers, and food allergy symptoms.
|Nauru||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Nepal||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Netherlands||Nutrition Center, Guidelines for Healthy Eating 2019 (What's not in the disk of five and why?)
||up to 10 g/day||up to 10 g/day||10||Do not drink alcohol or at least not more than one drink per day.|
|New Zealand||Health Promotion Agency, Alcohol.org.nz (2022)
Ministry of Health, Eating and Activity Guidelines 2020
|up to 30 g/day or 150 g/week, or 50 g on one occasion
over 64 years old: 30 g/day, or 150g/week, or 50g on one occasion
|up to 20 g/day, or 100 g/week, or 40 g on one occasion
over 64 years old: 20 g/day, or 100g/week, or 40g on one occasion
|10||Low-risk is not no-risk. Even when drinking within low-risk limits, a range of factors can affect your level of risk, including the rate of drinking, your body type or genetic makeup, your gender, existing health problems and if you are young or an older person.
Have at least two alcohol-free days every week.
There are times and circumstances when it is advisable not to drink alcohol. Do not drink if you: could be pregnant, are pregnant or trying to get pregnant; are on medication that interacts with alcohol; have a condition made worse by drinking alcohol; feel unwell, depressed, tired or cold as alcohol could make things worse; are about to operate machinery or a vehicle or do anything that is risky or requires skill.
Tips for low-risk drinking: There are a number of things you can do to make sure you and others stay within low-risk levels. These include: know what a standard drink is; keep track of how much you drink - daily and weekly; set limits for yourself and stick to them; start with non-alcoholic drinks and alternate with alcoholic drinks; drink slowly; try drinks with a lower alcohol content; eat before or while you are drinking; never drink and drive; be a responsible host; talk to your kids about alcohol.
Advice for parents of children and young people under 18 years: Not drinking alcohol is the safest option for children and young people under 18 years.
Those under 15 years of age are at the greatest risk of harm from drinking alcohol and not drinking in this age group is especially important.
For young people aged 15 to 17 years, the safest option is to delay drinking for as long as possible. If 15 to 17-year-olds do drink alcohol, they should be supervised, drink infrequently and at levels usually below and never exceeding the lower adult daily limits.
|Nicaragua||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Niger||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Nigeria||Federal Ministry of Health, National Nutritional Guideline on Non-Communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Management (2014)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Adults and elderly adults: Prolonged indulgence in excessive alcohol consumption predisposes to noncommunicable diseases; if you must drink, take alcohol in moderation. Avoid drinking alcohol when driving a vehicle or operating any machinery.|
|North Macedonia||Ministry of Health, Nutrition Guidelines for the Population of Macedonia (2014)||28.4 g/day||14.2 g/day||14.2||Minors and women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant should avoid alcohol altogether.|
|Norway||Directorate of Health, Norwegian Guidelines on Diet, Advice on diet and nutrition: Alcohol (2016)
The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations are being updated in 2019-2022.
|20 g/day||10 g/day||[none found]||Alcohol beverages may impair the nutritional quality of your diet. Alcohol intake should not exceed 5 percent of energy intake among adults. Children and youth are advised to avoid alcohol. Based on an overall assessment of the health and social consequences on the use of alcohol the Health Directorate recommends limiting alcohol intake, that you do not drink alcohol for health reasons, avoiding intoxication, and thinking about the situations in which you consume alcohol.|
|Oman||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Pakistan||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Palau||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Panama||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Papua New Guinea||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Paraguay||National Nutrition and Food Institute (INAN), Food Guidelines booklet (2021)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Guideline 10:
Why avoid consuming alcohol beverages? Alcohol consumption prevents absorption of certain important nutrients like vitamins. Excessive consumption of alcohol beverages harms physical and mental health. In children and adolescents alcohol beverages can cause intoxication and even death. ... Excessive consumption of alcohol beverages also diminishes reflexes, may cause accidents, so avoid consuming them when you will be driving. The inclusion of alcohol beverages in the family budget may reduce or substitute in many cases for basic daily necessity food items.
How to drink alcohol beverages moderately? Avoid. According to experts, to drink in moderation and so that no health harms result, the amount of alcohol beverages (ethanol) should be not exceed 1 glass of wine per day for women and 2 glasses of wine per day for men.
|Peru||Ministry of Health, Ministry of Health recommends avoiding excessive alcohol consumption (2012)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||If consuming alcohol, it is recommended to follow these guidelines:
Set a limit for drinking, alcohol should be consumed in moderation.
Consuming food before and during drinking can delay the effects of alcohol. Do not drink on an empty stomach.
Drink little and slowly.
Avoid the consumption of very salty foods, as they will make you thirstier and therefore you will consume more alcohol.
Alcohol dehydrates you, so it's important to drink water at the same time.
If you are depressed or angry, drinking will make these feelings worse, avoid doing so.
Do not mix different alcoholic beverages with each other, or alcohol with other drugs.
If you have adolescent or young children, establish some basic rules about the consumption of alcohol and the consequences that it entails.
Do not consume alcohol beverages if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or caring for children.
|Philippines||Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos (2012)
||24 g/day||12 g/day||12||The impact of alcohol consumption on disease and injury is largely determined by two separate but related dimensions of drinking: the totl volume of alcohol consumed and teh pattern of drinking. ...
Moderate alcohol consumption means no more than one portion drink per day for women and no more than two portion drinks per day for men. It is important to be reminded that consumption is on a per day basis and is not accumulative.
Pregnant women should abstain from consuming alcohol beverages because alcohol may cause problems like spontaneous abortion, fetal alcohol syndrome, impaired fetal development, possible malformations and other birth problems of the fetus.
|Poland||State Agency for Prevention of Alcohol Related Problems (PARPA),
Risky and harmful drinking
Women and alcohol
|[verification pending]||[verification pending]||10||The risk of health damage appears when a woman drinks more than two standard portions of alcohol a day [20 g/day] (500mL of beer, 200mL of wine, or 60mL of spirit). Three standard portions of alcohol a day [30g/day] cause health problems in women, which occur in men who drink more than nine portions of pure alcohol a day [90g/day].
Nobody uses alcohol to have problems. On the contrary, everyone who drinks alcohol expects benefits - to improve mood, add color to gray everyday life, facilitate social contacts, relax. Some even believe that alcohol can have beneficial health effects. Although alcohol is a poison and from the point of view of toxicology, any amount of alcohol consumed is risky, in most cases consuming small doses of alcohol does not entail visible health damage and social consequences. Nevertheless, some people should not drink alcohol at all: young people (due to the risk of serious developmental disorders), pregnant women and nursing mothers (due to the risk of fetal harm and negative impact on the health of the child), those taking medications that react with alcohol, anyone in a situation that precludes drinking (driving, staying at work, at school, etc.), and people who are harmed by any, even the smallest, amount of alcohol.
|Portugal||Ministry of Health, New Daily Food Choice Wheel (2020)||up to 3 glasses of beer (5%ABV) or 2 small glasses of wine (12%ABV) or 1/3 glass of spirit (40%ABV)||up to 2 glasses of beer (5%ABV) or 1 small glass of wine (12%ABV) or 1/5 glass of spirit (40%ABV)||[none found]||Alcohol beverages contain, by definition, ethyl alcohol or ethanol. Their consumption is not recommended at all for children, young people, pregnant and breastfeeding women. In moderation, and with meals, adults can consume them without risk.|
|Qatar||[n/a] Sale and consumption are prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Romania||National Center for Evaluation and Health Promotion (2019)
||≤ 24 g/day; 168 g/week; no more than 60 g at an occasion
if aged over 65, 12 g/day; 84 g/week; no more than 48 g at an occasion
|12 g/day; 84 g/week; no more than 48 g at an occasion||12
330mL 4-5% beer, 125 mL 12% wine, or 40 mL 40% spirit
|Russian Federation||Ministry of Health:
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Healthcare, Prevention information materials (2019) on smoking cessation and reducing harmful drinking
Federal Health Center, Healthy lifestyle: Healthy eating
|30 g/day||20 g/day||10||Prevention information materials (2019): Abstain for two days a week. These limits describe low-risk drinking in quantitative terms. Alcohol consumption of even these seemingly low portions can lead to problems if the drinking takes place at the wrong time or in the wrong place. This concept applies not only to the amount of alcohol consumed, but mainly to where and when it happens and how it affects the behavior of the drinker and others. In addition, there are situations when any use of alcohol is extremely undesirable, for example, when driving, pregnancy, etc.
Healthy eating (undated): Men: up to 50mL of spirits per day; Women: up to 25 mL of spirits per day
|Rwanda||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Samoa||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Ministry of Health, Social Services, Community Development, Culture and Gender Affairs, Food-based dietary guidelines for St. Kitts and Nevis 2010||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||If you use alcohol, do so sparingly. Tips for reducing alcohol use: Make less alcohol available at home; When out drinking, alternate alcoholic drink with water; Do not give alcohol to minors (children); Use small amounts of alcohol when cooking, if necessary; Choose to drink fruit juices or water instead of an alcoholic drink.|
|Saint Lucia||Ministry of Health, Food based dietary guidelines for Saint Lucia 2007||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation.|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Ministry of Health and the Environment and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Dietary Guidelines for St. Vincent and the Grenadines (2013)||[none found]||[none found]||14
(1.5 oz of spirit, or a regular can of beer, or 4 oz of wine)
|If you use alcohol do so sparingly both in drinking and in food preparation. Cut down on alcohol by drinking only small amounts of alcohol no more than 1-2 times per week.|
|Sao Tome and Principe||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Saudi Arabia||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Senegal||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Serbia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Seychelles||Ministry of Health, Seychelles food-based dietary guidelines 2020||16g/day or 112/week||16g/day or 112/week||8||Guidelines for the general population above 5 years, 10. Avoid alcohol but if you choose to drink limit your intake to prevent damaging your liver. Men and women who drink should try to abstain from having any alcohol at least 3 days per week.|
|Sierra Leone||Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Food-based dietary guidelines for healthy eating (2016)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Older people aged 60+: Keep off alcohol.
Tips for oral health for the general population: Limit intake of beverages such as coffee and alcohol. Taken in excess these will contribute to too much phosphorous which depletes calcium levels.
|Singapore||Health Promotion Board,
Alcohol - More than meets the eye (2022)
|20 g/day||10 g/day||10||Those who do decide to drink alcohol should take note of how much you drink, in addition to the percentage of alcohol in a drink. To lower the risk of alcohol-related harm over a lifetime, men should drink no more than two standard drinks per day, and women no more than one standard drink per day.
Consuming 50 g or more (if you are male), or 40 g or more (if you are female), in one occasion is considered as binge drinking. Binge drinking is a form of alcohol abuse.
The following groups should abstain from consuming alcohol altogether: Pregnant women or those trying to conceive; People on medication or have medical conditions such as alcohol allergy, alcohol addiction, liver disease and stomach ulcers; Children and adolescents. Research shows that drinking during adolescence can harm physical and brain development. Drinking alcohol during this time can bring about learning difficulties, and memory and social developmental problems.
|Slovakia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Slovenia||Institute of Public Health of Slovenia,
Risky drinking (2014)
Alcohol Policy in Slovenia (2019)
|up to 20 g/day or 140 g/week or 50 g/drinking occasion;
men aged 65 and above: up to 10 g/day or 70 g/week or 30 g/drinking occasion
|up to 10 g/day or 70 g/week or 30 g/drinking occasion||10||At least one day per week should be completely alcohol-free.
People who are professional drivers or have medical conditions should abstain from alcohol.
Minors should not drink alcohol at all.
|Solomon Islands||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Somalia||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|South Africa||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|South Sudan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Spain||Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, Healthy Lifestyles: Risky and harmful alcohol consumption (2016)||up to 40 g/day or 280 g/week||up to 20 g/day or 170 g/week||10||Drinking can always be considered risky in certain circumstances, like: being a minor, driving a vehicle, doing work that requires coordination, concentration and attention, if taking certain medications that may interact with alcohol, if suffering a disease that alcohol could exacerbate.|
|Sri Lanka||Ministry of Health, Food-based dietary guidelines for Sri Lankans (2016)||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Consumption of alcohol beverages is harmful to health. It can lead to hypertension, cirrhosis, peptic ulcer, and esophageal cancer. Those who consume alcohol are 7 times more likely to develop cirrhosis than those who do not.|
|Sudan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Suriname||Psychiatric Health Center, E-health.sr||up to 2 drinks per day or 5 drinks at once||up to 1 drink per day or 5 drinks at once||[none found]||Do not drink while exercising, studying, working or driving.|
|Sweden||National Food Administration, Nutrition and eating habits (2022): Alcohol advice
The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations are being updated in 2019-2022.
|up to 20 g/day||up to 10 g/day||~12||According to the Nordic Nutritional Recommendations, the intake should be limited to a maximum of 10 g/day for women and a maximum of 20 g/day for men. One bottle of strong beer (33 cl) contains about 15 grams of alcohol. A glass of wine (15 cl) as much.
Pregnant, children and adolescents should abstain from alcohol beverages.
|Switzerland||Federal Alcohol Commission (EKAL), Guidance on alcohol consumption (2018)||up to 20 g/day;
not to exceed 50 g within a few hours
|up to 10 g/day;
not to exceed 40 g within a few hours
|10||Some alcohol-free days are recommended each week.
Children and adolescents should avoid alcohol altogether.
Pregnant women and women who are planning to become pregnant are advised to abstain from alcohol. Even during breastfeeding, it is recommended to abstain from alcohol altogether.
People who take medications should avoid alcohol as much as possible or should only consume it with restraint. When driving, at work, doing sports and generally in activities that require increased concentration, forego alcohol.
Be more careful with alcohol consumption as you grow older.
|Syrian Arab Republic||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Tajikistan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Tanzania, United Republic||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Thailand||Ministry of Public Health,
Guidelines for Eating Healthy Food (2021)
Alcohol Hazards (2017)
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||For adults of all ages, the regular consumption of alcohol beverages should be reduced if not avoided altogether.
Drinking while pregnant can cause harm to the unborn child, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding are to avoid alcohol.
|Timor L'este||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Trinidad and Tobago||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Tonga||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Turkey||Ministry of Health,
Turkey dietary guidelines (2019)
Nutrition during pregnancy, Nutrition during breastfeeding, Nutrition in old age (2017)
|[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||2019: Children, adolescents, pregnant women, [breastfeeding] women, drivers, individuals with any health problem, individuals working in the field of operation requiring attention, individuals using drugs showing negative interaction with alcohol should never consume alcohol.
Recommendations for a healthy nutrition in adulthood: ...alcohol use must be avoided.
Recommendations for healthy nutrition in elderly: Alcohol ... must be avoided.
2017: Individuals 65 and older should abstain from alcohol. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not consume alcohol.
|Turkmenistan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Tuvalu||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Uganda||Presidential Initiative On Healthy Eating & Healthy Lifestyle 2019||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Reduce alcohol consumption ... Excessive alcohol is a main risk factor for liver disease and several types of cancers, road accidents and domestic violence. Adults: Limit alcohol beverages.|
|Ukraine||Ministry of Health,
Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition for Adults (2017)
|20g [/day]||10g [/day]||10
30mL of vodka, 100mL of wine, or 300mL of beer
|Do not start drinking or limit alcohol consumption.
Alcohol consumption should be avoided as there is no safe level of alcohol consumption. Any amount of alcohol increases the risk of unhealthy consequences, including injuries, violence, digestive diseases, cancer, and so on.
|United Kingdom||Department of Health, UK Chief Medical Officers’ Low Risk Drinking Guidelines 2016||up to 112 g/week||up to 112 g/week||8||This applies to adults who drink regularly or frequently i.e. most weeks. The Chief Medical Officers’ guideline for both men and women is that:
• To keep health risks from alcohol to a low level it is safest not to drink more than 14 units a week on a regular basis.
• If you regularly drink as much as 14 units per week, it is best to spread your drinking evenly over 3 or more days. If you have one or two heavy drinking episodes a week, you increase your risks of death from long term illness and from accidents and injuries.
• The risk of developing a range of health problems (including cancers of the mouth, throat and breast) increases the more you drink on a regular basis.
• If you wish to cut down the amount you drink, a good way to help achieve this is to have several drink-free days each week.
This applies to drinking on any single occasion (not regular drinking, which is covered by the
weekly guideline). The Chief Medical Officers’ advice for men and women who wish to keep their short term health risks from single occasion drinking episodes to a low level is to reduce
them by: limiting the total amount of alcohol you drink on any single occasion, drinking more slowly, drinking with food, and alternating with water, and planning ahead to avoid problems e.g. by making sure you can get home safely or that you have people you trust with you.
The sorts of things that are more likely to happen if you do not understand and judge correctly the risks of drinking too much on a single occasion can include: accidents resulting in injury, causing death in some cases, misjudging risky situations, and losing self-control (e.g. engaging in unprotected sex). The risks of injury to a person who has been drinking recently have been found to rise between two and five times when 5-7 units (40-56 g) are drunk in a 3-6 hour period.
Some groups of people are more likely to be affected by alcohol and should be more careful of their level of drinking on any one occasion for example those at risk of falls, those on medication that may interact with alcohol or where it may exacerbate pre-existing physical and mental health problems.
If you are a regular weekly drinker and you wish to keep both your short- and long-term health risks from drinking low, this single episode drinking advice is also relevant for you.
|United States||Department of Agriculture and Department of Health & Human Services, Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Alcohol use and your health (2022)
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA),
Rethinking Drinking webpage , Older Adults webpage
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and Administration on Aging, Older Americans behavioral health Issue brief 2: Alcohol misuse and abuse prevention (2012)
|up to 28 g/day
avoid exceeding 70g within 2 hours
|up to 14 g/day
avoid exceeding 56g within 2 hours
|14||To help Americans move toward a healthy dietary pattern and minimize risks associated with drinking, adults of legal drinking age can choose not to drink or to drink in moderation by limiting intakes to 2 drinks or less in a day for men and 1 drink or less in a day for women, on days when alcohol is consumed. This is not intended as an average over several days, but rather the amount consumed on any single day. Binge drinking, defined as 5 or more drinks for the typical adult male or 4 or more drinks for the typical adult female in about 2 hours, should be avoided.
The Dietary Guidelines does not recommend that individuals who do not drink alcohol start drinking for any reason. There are also some people who should not drink at all, such as if they are pregnant or might be pregnant; under the legal age for drinking; if they have certain medical conditions or are taking certain medications that can interact with alcohol; and if they are recovering from an alcohol use disorder or if they are unable to control the amount they drink. If adults age 21 years and older choose to drink alcoholic beverages, drinking less is better for health than drinking more.
|Uruguay||Ministry of Health, Food Guide for the Uruguayan Population (2016)||up to 40 g/day or 140 g/week||up to 30 g/day or 70 g/week||10||We recommend that if you drink alcohol, it is important to do so in a responsible manner. Drinking is never completely safe, but if you decide to do it, try to reduce risks as much as possible. To do so you can calculate your units and keep in mind the limits.
Do not exceed these limits. If you are accustomed to drinking, avoid alcohol for at least two days each week.
Children and pregnant women should not drink alcohol.
|Uzbekistan||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Vanuatu||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Viet Nam||National Institute of Nutrition, 10 tips on proper nutrition for 2020||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||Tip 10: .. limit alcohol. ... To keep the body healthy and avoid diseases, it is necessary to limit drinking alcohol and eating sweets. Drinking a lot of alcohol and beer reduces the ability to work, when drunk you lose self-control, which can lead to many traffic accidents and social disorder and affects family happiness. The habit of drinking alcohol causes harms to health and increases the risk of diseases such as cirrhosis, neurasthenia, memory loss, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer, gout. [unofficial translation]|
|Yemen||[n/a] Sale is prohibited.||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]||[n/a]|
|Zambia||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|
|Zimbabwe||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]||[none found]|